The Landscape of Panemunė Castles: Value and Protection Problems

  • Jūratė Jurevičienė Vilnius Gediminas Technical University
  • Marija Burinskiene Vilnius Gediminas Technical University
Keywords: Panemunė castles, Nemunas valley landscape, historic and cultural potential of the territory


The article studies historic and cultural value of landscape having been formed in the middle stretch of the right bank of Nemunas River (in the section between Jurbarkas and Kaunas). The article gives methodological principles and criteria based on which a historic expression of landscape is identified. A historic load of the territory is described, also its unique features in the context of Lithuania and the relevant aspects of cultural cognitive potential. It is revealed that till now the largest attention was paid to the existing buildings of Panemunė (Gelgaudai, Vytėnai), Raudonė and Raudondvaris residential castles, however, they has been only partly integrated into the local social structure. When forming landscape the insufficiently respected are the sites of the former Crusader castles on the Nemunas riverbank, i.e. the sites of Seredžius II (Palocėliai, the supposed site of Dubysenburg) and Dubysa II (Pilaitė). The expression and spatial interaction of medieval defensive structures and their remains create in the study territory an important but yet unusable potential of mental landscape.