THE INFLUENCE OF NATURAL LANDSCAPE AND CHINESE TRADITIONS TO TRANSFORMATION OF ART NOUVEAU AND NATIONAL ROMANTICISM ARCHITECTURE IN CHINA
Keywords:Art Nouveau architecture, China, natural landscape, transformation
The actuality of this theme connects with problems of function, protection and restoration of the Art-nouveau (A.N.) heritage in Chinese towns, which consists more than 200 objects. Necessary to mean the scientific works of Liu Daping and Van Yang , A.Ivanova , T. Johston , B. Lane Miller , S. Levoshko , M. Marinelli, L.Sadovski , Wang Chaolu  and Yuan Binjiu . and many others, who marked the domination role of Chinese natural and cultural conditions to forming of versions Art-nouveau and North National Romanticism in China. But in their scientific researches in whole describes the architectural objects and more less the problems of existing of this objects in natural environment.
That’s why necessary to mark the main role of Buddhism and Taoism for forming the ancient Chinese landscape traditions, because later this Chinese original traditions led to change the European A.N. architecture in Chinese settlements.
The aim of this research was to analyze the process of transformation the Art-nouveau (A.N.) and North National Romanticism in China and the role of natural landscape in this process. The main methods of investigation was the method of the systematic-structural analyze/ With this method were determined the main role of natural landscape and Chinese traditions for impression of the A.N. objects in China.
The main changes between the European A.N. and Chinese version of A.N. connected with differences in natural landscape. The European objects were situated in the regular town-planning system without trees and parks. The main feature of traditional Chinese architecture forming in continue of centuries was the organic connection between nature and building with the domination of natural landscape. That is why the town-planning situation in Chinese centres of A.N. and National Romanticism architecture differ so strongly from the European town-planning situation. Chinese objects in most cases situated in parks and in architectural complex dominate the natural landcsape with picturesque hills, exotic trees and flowers and lakes with golden fishes.
The specific features of nature in different parts of China determined the impression of A.N. objects (the A.N. objects and objects of North National Romanticism in German settlement Qingdao with subtropical climate differ strongly from similar objects at Russian settlements Harbin, Shenyang and Dalyan in Nortern-East part of China). Really, the changing landscape was the main reason for transformation the European architectural style for Chinese conditions.
The scientific novelty of research:
– were analyzed in complex and argued the role of nature conditions and natural landscape in process of transformation the Art-nouveau architecture in Chinese settlments, the A.N. objects in China surround the picturesque gardens with exotic plants;
- was determined at the base of methodology of system-structural analyze that the A.N. objects in China differs strongly from the European examples of A.N. and North National romanticism not only in forms but more in natural environment. There is the original situation of existing the brutal gray objects of North National romanticism with granite blocks among the color Chinese landscape, that why its determine the protection not only the A.N. buildings but the natural arrangement too;
- the existing of A.N. objects in China along the natural landscape led to transformation this territory into the protective national parks and touristic zones.