An Overview of the Existing Schemes and Research Trends in Financing the Energy Upgrade of Buildings in Europe


  • Christiana Panteli Frederick University, Cleopa GmbH
  • Eglė Klumbytė Kaunas University of Technology
  • Rasa Apanavičienė Kaunas University of Technology
  • Paris A. Fokaides Frederick University



Funding schemes; crowdfunding; public-private-partnership; energy upgrade; buildings; energy efficiency


Financial supporting schemes for the energy upgrading of the building sector in Europe constitute one of the major policies of the European Union (EU). Since the beginning of the 2000s, dozens of funding programs and initiatives have been announced by the European Commission (EC). It is a fact that the majority of these policies have borne fruit, as the metrics on both energy savings in the building sector and the promotion of renewable energy in the built environment have turned the EU into a global pioneer. This paper attempts to give a brief overview of the main policy and financial tools for the energy upgrading of the built environment in Europe. Emphasis is placed on three major mechanisms, which concern different-scale projects: crowdfunding projects, public-private co-financing projects, and large-scale projects funded by financial institutions such as European Investment Bank (EIB). Reference is also made to recently implemented EU funded research programs in this field. This work aspires to constitute a reference study for future research activities in the field of financial supporting schemes for energy upgrading of buildings in Europe.

Author Biography

Paris A. Fokaides, Frederick University

School of Engineering and Applied Sciences