Impact of Displacement Phenomena on Landscape Identity: Application of Cultural Values Model


  • Ali Ashraf Mohamed Talat Ibrahim Kaunas University of Technology
  • Jūratė Kamičaitytė



displacement phenomena, cultural values model, landscape, identity


The research attempted to discover the impact of displacement phenomena on the identity of landscape, by using Janet Stephenson’s Cultural Values Model to study and analyze cultural landscapes. The model was chosen due to its universality, simplicity and embodiment of the relational concept of landscape perception and evaluation. The result of landscape evaluation depends on the characteristics of both landscape and observer, as well as on the relation of the object and subject. In order to understand the complexity and diversity of landscape and its identity, these were analyzed through a ternary system, consisting of forms, practices, and relationships, i.e. what is seen, what is happening and what it means to those who see and use it. The research represents a feasible and pragmatic approach to understand the complexity of landscape and its identity, by tracing back their retrospective changes due to the impact of displacement phenomena – a shift of objects, behaviours or relationships. Through this theoretical and methodological model, multiple universal correlational patterns were developing, in which the three components encountering the displacement behave and interact with each other, leading to an ambiguous impact on landscape identity and the socio-cultural quality of the human living environment. By studying and time-tracking different landscape cases that experienced major displacements from around the world to one of landscape’s systemic components, the research results show some regular patterns in landscape identity changes, and how its structural tangible and intangible system performs and effects in creating, or destroying landscape identity, defying the limits of spatial and historical context.